We previously reported that lipoprotein lipase mass levels in preheparin serum (preheparin LPL mass) was significantly lower in type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to healthy subjects and that low preheparin LPL mass may be a high-risk factor of coronary atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of metformin on serum lipoprotein lipase mass levels (preheparin LPL mass), adiponectin and lipid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twenty-eight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (HbAlc>7.0%), who were already receiving sulfonylurea agents, took metformin 500mg orally twice daily for 3 months. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), immunoreactive insulin (basal IRI) and HbAlc decreased significantly after metformin treatment. LDL-Rm ratio decreased significantly (from 0.3521+/-0.046 to 0.3339+/-0.030, P<0.05) and preheparin LPL mass increased significantly (from 42.5+/-3.2 to 50.6+/-3.5ng/ml, P<0.0005), but adiponectin was unchanged. The correlation of a change of LDL-Rm ratio and a change of preheparin LPL mass showed a negative correlation tendency. The changes in LDL-Rm ratio and preheparin LPL mass were independent of the hypoglycemic effect of metformin. These results suggest that metformin may increase LPL production, thereby increasing LDL particle size. These effects might be independent of the hypoglycemic effect of metformin.