Familial lipoprotein disorders are seen frequently in subjects with premature coronary artery disease. The genetic basis for several dyslipoproteinemias has been elucidated in the past two decades. The majority of lipoprotein disorders result from a combination of polygenic predisposition and poor lifestyle habits, including physical inactivity, increased visceral adipose tissue, increased caloric intake, and cigarette smoking. Monogenic disorders are seen in approximately 5% of premature coronary artery disease cases, and this prevalence is higher in populations with the Founder effect. Unraveling the genetic basis of many lipoprotein disorders has allowed fundamental discoveries in molecular cellular physiology and has paved the way for novel therapeutic approaches.