L-19 and IL-20: two novel cytokines with importance in inflammatory diseases.

Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2007 May;11(5):601-12.  

Sabat R, Wallace E, Endesfelder S, Wolk K.
Interdisciplinary Group of Molecular Immunopathology, Dermatology/Medical Immunology, University Hospital Charité, Campus Charité Mitte, Berlin, Germany. robert.sabat@charite.de 

IL-19 and IL-20 are two cytokines that were discovered in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Based on the structure and location of their genes, their primary and secondary protein structures and the used receptor complexes, they were classified with IL-10, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, IL-28 and IL-29 in the IL-10 family of cytokines, and form a subgroup with IL-24 within this family. IL-19 and IL-20 are produced by monocytes as well as non-immune tissue cells under inflammatory conditions. IL-19 and IL-20 act via a receptor complex that consists of the IL-20R1 and IL-20R2 chains. IL-20 is additionally able to signal via a second receptor complex (IL-22R1/IL-20R2). It is controversial whether or not IL-19 and IL-20 regulate the function of immune cells. However, the expression of their receptors aliments the perception that the cells of the skin, lungs and reproductive organs as well as various glands are major targets of these mediators. Results from animal experiments and massively increased expression of these mediators in human inflamed tissues support the assumption that they play an important role in the pathogenesis of a few inflammatory diseases. For this reason, the authors have reviewed the facts known at present regarding these cytokines and postulate that IL-19 and IL-20 are pharmacologically interesting distal elements of an inflammatory cascade.