Linking inflammation and atherogenesis: Soluble markers identified for the detection of risk factors and for early risk assessment.

Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Apr;366(1-2):74-80. Epub 2005 Dec 15.  

Wu JT, Wu LL.
ARUP Laboratories and Cardiovascular Genetics, Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA. 

Increasing evidence has shown that atherogenesis is not only caused by hypercholesterolemia. Several risk factors including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, bacterial and viral infection, hyperhomocysteinemia have been identified recently, all mediated through inflammation, which can lead to atherosclerosis. Several events have also been identified to be involved in the overall inflammation reaction in the blood vessel which include endothelium dysfunction, expression of adhesion molecules, recruitment of leukocytes to the injured endothelium, migration of monocytes to the arterial intima, and transformation of monocytes to macrophages. In order to facilitate the assessment of early risk for atherogenesis we have made an effort in this review to identify soluble markers that will allow the detection of these risk factors and the identification of associated inflammation events. Since early risks for atherogenesis are largely preventable with dietary modification and lifestyle changes, capable of detecting early risks by monitoring soluble risk markers is conceivably important for asymptomatic individuals to avoid serious or fatal consequences of atherosclerosis. These soluble markers should also be useful for monitoring the effectiveness of intervention and for the identification of therapeutic targets.