Nutritional, or dietary oxidative stress denotes a disturbance of the redox state resulting from excess oxidative load or from inadequate nutrient supply favoring prooxidant reactions. Low intake or impaired availability of dietary antioxidants including vitamins E and C, carotenoids, polyphenols, and other micronutrients (e.g., selenium) weakens the antioxidant network. Postprandial oxidative stress, as a subform of nutritional oxidative stress, ensues from sustained postprandial hyperlipidemia and/or hyperglycemia and is associated with a higher risk for atherosclerosis, diabetes, and obesity. In Western societies, a significant part of the day is spent in the postprandial state. Unsaturated fatty acids incorporated into LDL and oxidized LDL are an atherogenic factor. Lipid hydroperoxides present in the diet are absorbed, contributing to the prooxidant load. In hyperlipidemic and hyperglycemic subjects, endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired in the postprandial state, making postprandial oxidative stress an important factor modulating cardiovascular risk. Postprandial oxidative stress is attenuated when dietary antioxidants are supplied together with a meal rich in oxidized or oxidizable lipids. Ingestion of dietary polyphenols, e.g., from wine, cocoa, or tea, improves endothelial dysfunction and lowers the susceptibility of LDL lipids to oxidation. Polyphenols affect endothelial function not solely as antioxidants but also as modulatory signaling molecules.