CONTEXT: Few data document current cardiovascular (CV) event rates in stable patients with atherothrombosis in a community setting. Differential event rates for patients with documented coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular disease (CVD), or peripheral arterial disease (PAD) or those at risk of these diseases have not been previously evaluated in a single international cohort. OBJECTIVE: To establish contemporary, international, 1-year CV event rates in outpatients with established arterial disease or with multiple risk factors for atherothrombosis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry is an international, prospective cohort of 68 236 patients with either established atherosclerotic arterial disease (CAD, PAD, CVD; n = 55 814) or at least 3 risk factors for atherothrombosis (n = 12 422), who were enrolled from 5587 physician practices in 44 countries in 2003-2004. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of CV death, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke. RESULTS: As of July 2006, 1-year outcomes were available for 95.22% (n = 64 977) of participants. Cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke rates were 4.24% overall: 4.69% for those with established atherosclerotic arterial disease vs 2.15% for patients with multiple risk factors only. Among patients with established disease, CV death, MI, or stroke rates were 4.52% for patients with CAD, 6.47% for patients with CVD, and 5.35% for patients with PAD. The incidences of the end point of CV death, MI, or stroke or of hospitalization for atherothrombotic event(s) were 15.20% for CAD, 14.53% for CVD, and 21.14% for PAD patients with established disease. These event rates increased with the number of symptomatic arterial disease locations, ranging from 5.31% for patients with risk factors only to 12.58% for patients with 1, 21.14% for patients with 2, and 26.27% for patients with 3 symptomatic arterial disease locations (P<.001 for trend). CONCLUSIONS: In this large, contemporary, international study, outpatients with established atherosclerotic arterial disease, or at risk of atherothrombosis, experienced relatively high annual CV event rates. Multiple disease locations increased the 1-year risk of CV events.