Systemic low-grade inflammation and risk of coronary heart disease: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort studies.

Gesundheitswesen. 2005 Aug;67 Suppl 1:S62-7.  

Koenig W, Meisinger C, Baumert J, Khuseyinova N, Lowel H.
University of Ulm Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine II-Cardiology, Ulm, Germany. 

Atherosclerosis is characterised by a non-specific local inflammatory process accompanied by a systemic response. A number of prospective studies in initially healthy subjects and in patients with manifest atherosclerosis have now convincingly demonstrated a strong and independent association between even slightly elevated concentrations of various systemic markers of inflammation (plasma viscosity, C-reactive protein [CRP], and other acute phase reactants) and a number of cardiovascular endpoints. Presently, CRP, the classical acute phase protein, seems to be the marker of choice for the clinical situation. Initial evidence suggests that measurement of CRP adds to global risk assessment based on the Framingham risk score. The recent AHA/CDC consensus report recommends the measurement of CRP in asymptomatic subjects at intermediate risk for future coronary events (10-year risk of 10-20 %) and in selected patients after an acute coronary syndrome. Whether CRP shall alter treatment strategies in subjects without clinically manifest atherosclerosis is presently being tested in a large randomised clinical trial. In addition, recent research has suggested that CRP may not only be a risk marker, but may be directly involved in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. However, there are other emerging biomarkers. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A (2) (Lp-PLA (2)), an enzyme produced by monocytes/macrophages, T-cells and mast cells was found to generate proinflammatory and proatherogenic molecules from oxidised LDL. We tested the association of these new biomarkers with traditional risk factors and their ability to predict incident coronary events, using the MONICA/KORA database.